Adopted January 18, 2000
Article 9
9-1001  Purpose and Intent
        The purpose of this section is to regulate the placement, orientation,
        distribution and fixture type and size of outdoor lighting. The intent
        of this section is to encourage lighting that provides safety, utility
        and security, as well as preventing glare on public roadways, and to 
        protect the privacy of adjoining properties.
9-1002  Conformance with Applicable Codes and Ordinances
        All outdoor artificial illuminating devices shall be installed in 
        conformance with the provisions of this Article, and applicable 
        provisions of the Zoning Ordinance. Where there is conflict between 
        the provisions of this Article and applicable provisions of the Zoning 
        Ordinance, the most restrictive shall govern.
9-1003  Approved Materials and Methods of Installation
        The provisions of this Article are not intended to prevent the use of 
        any equipment, material or method of installation not specifically 
        prescribed by this Article provided the alternative has been approved 
        by the Zoning Administrator. The Zoning Administrator may approve any 
        such alternative provided that the proposed design provides the 
        approximate equivalence to the specific requirements of this Article.
9-1004  Definitions
        1. Outdoor Light Fixtures shall mean outdoor artificial illuminating
        devices, outdoor fixtures, lamps or other devices, permanent or portable, 
        used for illumination, direction or advertisement. Such devices shall 
        include, but are not limited to search, spot, or flood lights for:
               a. buildings and structures, including canopies and overhangs
               b. recreational areas
               c. parking lot lighting
               d. landscape lighting
               e. signs, including billboards
               f. display and service areas
        2. Installed shall mean the initial installation of outdoor light 
        fixtures defined herein,following the effective date of this Article
        but shall not apply to those outdoor light fixtures installed prior to
        such date.
        3. Shielded, Fully shall mean fixtures that are shielded in such a manner
        that light emitted by the fixture, either directly from the lamp or
        indirectly from the fixture, are projected below a horizontal plane 
        running through the lowest point on the fixture where light is emitted. 
        This means that a fully shielded fixture is one used in such a way that 
        it allows no direct or internally reflected light to shine above the 
        light fixture.
        4. Footcandle. A quantitative unit of measure referring to the 
        measurement of illumination incident at a single point. One footcandle
        is equal to one lumen uniformly distributed over an area of one square
        5.  Full Cutoff Angle. The angle formed by a line drawn from the light
        source and a line perpendicular to the ground from the light source, 
        beyond which no light is emitted. Refer to example graphics. (Refer
        to Figure 2)
        6. Initial Lumens. The lumens emitted from a lamp, as specified by the
        manufacturer of the lamp.
        7. Lamp. The component of a luminaire that produces light. A lamp is
        also commonly referred to as a bulb.
        8. Lumen. A standard unit of measurement referring to the amount of
        light energy emitted by a light source, without regard to the 
        effectiveness of its distribution.
        9. Luminaire. A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp or lamps 
        together with the components designed to distribute the light, to 
        position and protect the lamps, and to connect the lamps to the power 
        supply. A luminaire is also commonly referred to as a fixture.
        10. Outdoor Luminaire. A luminaire which is permanently installed 
        outdoors including, but not limited to, devices used to illuminate 
        any site, structure, or sign.
        11. Photometric Plan. A point by point plan depicting the intensity
        and location of lighting on the property.
9-1005  Shielding
        All outdoor light fixtures except those exempted by Section 9-1007 
        and those regulated by Section 9-1006.2 shall be fully shielded as 
        identified in Section 9-1006. A fully shielded fixture must be a full 
        cutoff luminaire or a decorative luminaire with full cutoff optics, 
        and is defined as an outdoor lighting that is shielded or constructed 
        so that all light emitted is projected below a horizontal plane 
        running through the lowest part of the fixtures. The light source 
        visibility shall be shielded from the adjoining property.
9-1006  General Requirements for all Zoning Districts
        1. Public or Private Recreational Facilities: 
               a. Primary Playing Areas. Where playing fields or other 
               recreational areas are to be illuminated, lighting fixtures 
               shall be specified in the Lighting Plan, mounted and aimed so 
               that the illumination falls within the primary playing area 
               and immediate surroundings so that no direct light 
               illumination is directed off site.
               b. Recreation Parking Areas. Lighting for these parking areas 
               shall meet the requirements identified in 9-1006.5.
        2. Outdoor Illumination of Building, Landscaping and Signs. The 
        unshielded outdoor illumination of any building or landscaping is 
        prohibited. Lighting fixtures used to illuminate an outdoor 
        advertising sign either shall be by directed ground lighting sign 
        or mounted on the top of the sign, and shall comply with shielding 
        3. All outdoor lighting fixtures, including display lighting, shall 
        be turned off after the close of business, unless needed for safety 
        or security, in which case the lighting shall be reduced to the 
        minimum level necessary.
        4. Gasoline Station/Convenience Store Aprons and Canopies. 
               a. The Lighting fixture bulbs shall be recessed into a canopy
                ceiling so that the bottom of the fixture is flush with the 
               ceiling so that light is restrained to no more than 85 degrees 
               from vertical as shown in Figure 1.
               b. As an alternative to recessed ceiling lights, indirect 
               lighting may be used where the light is directed upward and 
               then reflected down from the underside of the canopy. In this 
               case, light fixtures shall be shielded so that direct 
               illumination is focused exclusively on the underside of the 
               c. Lights shall not be mounted on the top or sides (facia) of 
               the canopy, and the sides of the canopy shall not be illuminated. 
               d. The lighting for new facilities (pump islands and under 
               canopies) shall have a minimum of 1.0 footcandle at grade, and 
               the average horizontal illumination cannot exceed 10 footcandles 
               at grade level, subject to a uniformity ratio (ratio of average 
               to minimum illuminance) no greater than 4:1. The standards herein 
               are based on the Illuminating Engineering Society of North 
               America (IESNA) RP-33, Lighting for Exterior Environments.
        5.  All Parking Lots, Loading and Display Areas. This lighting 
        requirement applies to townhouse and multi-family, educational, 
        institutional, commercial recreation, public, commercial business and 
        retail, motor vehicle related, wholesaling, and limited and general 
        industrial use categories identified within the Zoning Ordinance. 
               a. Lighting for all parking, display and loading areas shall 
               not exceed an average horizontal illumination level of 2.5 
               footcandles. All lighting fixtures serving these areas shall be 
               cut-off fixtures as defined by the Illuminating Engineering 
               Society of North America (IESNA);
               b. Maximum Mounting Height*
                       Residential: 20 feet
                       Non-Residential: 25 feet
                       * Height is measured from the ground surface to the 
                       bottom of the lighting fixture.
        6. Mercury Vapor. The installation of mercury vapor fixtures is 
        prohibited, except for agricultural buildings, paddocks and similar use 
        areas in RA and RC zoning districts. For residential structures on 
        agricultural property, lighting must be full cut-off fixtures, or 
        retrofitted with, for example, the Hubble Sky Cap and illumination 
        shielded downward. 
        7. Spillover light, vertical or horizontal, from parking area 
        luminaires onto public roads and property in residential or rural Rural 
        Agricultural (RA) and Rural Conservation (RC) zoning districts shall not 
        exceed one-half (1/2) footcandle at the property line.
9-1007  Exemptions
        1. Nonconforming Fixtures. Outdoor light fixtures installed prior to 
        the effective date of this Article are exempt from the provisions of 
        this Article, provided, however, that no change in use, replacement, 
        and structural alteration of outdoor light fixtures shall be made unless 
        it thereafter conforms to the provisions of this Article.
        2. Lighting which is not subject to this chapter by state or federal law.
        3. Roadway and Airport lighting and security lighting controlled and 
        activated by motion sensor devices for a duration of fifteen (15) minutes 
        or less.
        4. Lighting of the United States of America or Commonwealth of Virginia 
        flags and other non-commercial flags expressing constitutionally protected 
        5. Temporary circus, fair, carnival, or civic uses.
        6. Special Conditions. The Zoning Administrator may grant an exemption 
        to the requirements of Section 9-1006 only upon a written finding that 
        there are conditions warranting the exemption and that there are no 
        conforming fixtures that would suffice.
        7. Construction and Emergency Lighting. Lighting necessary for construction 
        or emergencies is exempt from the provisions of this Article provided said 
        lighting is temporary and is discontinued immediately upon completion of 
        the construction work or abatement of the emergency necessitating said 
        8. Lighting associated with agricultural uses structures, such as a barn, 
        paddock area.  Residential buildings and parking associated with a farm 
        or other agricultural uses are not exempted from the lighting requirements 
        contained herein.
9-1008  Applications
        1. Any person submitting a site plan or applying for a building, 
        electrical or sign permit to install outdoor lighting fixtures shall as
        a part of said application submit evidence that the proposed work will 
        comply with this Article.
        2. The lighting plan application shall include at least the following:
               a. A site plan drawn to scale showing building(s), landscaping, 
               parking areas and proposed exterior lighting fixtures; 
               b. Location of all post, canopy, supports and light fixtures, 
               including the height of each fixture, for any building, 
               structure, parking, display and loading areas; 
               c. Specifications of the illuminating devices, lamps, supports, 
               and other Devices, including designation as Illuminating 
               Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) "cut-off" fixtures. 
               This description may include but is not limited to manufacturers 
               catalog cuts, and drawings including sections where required;
               d. Plan shall show locations of all pole mounted and building 
               mounted fixtures and a numerical 25 foot by 25 foot grid of 
               lighting levels, in footcandles, that the fixtures will produce 
               on the ground (photometric report). The photometric report will 
               indicate the minimum and maximum footcandle levels within the 
               lighted area of the site. The minimum (lowest number) is usually 
               at the outer edges of the illuminated area or between two 
               fixtures. The average light level is determined by adding the 
               footcandle value of all the points in the grid and dividing 
               by the total number of points. 
               This information is available from the manufacturer of the 
               specified fixture. (Refer to Figure 3 for an example of this 
               report style)
        3. The above required plans and descriptions shall be sufficiently 
        complete to enable the Zoning Administrator to readily determine 
        whether compliance with the requirements of this Article will be 
        secured. If such plans and descriptions cannot enable this ready 
        determination, by reason of the nature or configuration of the devices, 
        fixtures or lamps proposed, the applicant shall submit evidence of 
        compliance by certified test reports as performed by a recognized 
        testing lab.
9-1009  Issuance of Permit for Lighting on Private Property
        Prior to issuance of a building, electrical or sign permit, the 
        Zoning Administrator shall determine that the submitted plans and 
        details for said permit are in conformance with this Article. The 
        stamping of the plans and the signature of the director or his 
        designated representative and the date of the signature shall 
        indicate that the plans are in conformance.
9-1010  Amendment to Permit for Lighting on Private Property
        Should the applicant desire to substitute outdoor light fixtures 
        or lamps to be installed on private property after a permit has 
        been issued, the applicant shall submit all changes to the Zoning 
        Administrator for approval, with adequate information to assure 
        compliance with this Article.
9-1011  Appeals
        Except for street lighting within the right-of-way and for 
        temporary exemptions as provided in Section 9-1007.1-5, any 
        applicant's appeal of the Zoning Administrator's decision shall 
        be made to the Board of Zoning Appeals, and the procedures of 
        the Zoning Ordinance and shall apply.
9-1012  Request for Temporary Exemptions
        1. Request. Any person may submit a written request on a form 
        prepared by the Zoning Administrator for a temporary exemption 
        to the requirements of this Article.
        The Request for Temporary Exemption shall contain the following 
               a. Specific exemptions requested.
               b. Type and use of exterior light involved.
               c. Duration of time for requested exemption.
               d. Type of lamp and calculated lumens.
               e. Total wattage of lamp or lamps.
               f. Proposed location of exterior light.
               g. Previous temporary exemptions, if any.
               h. Physical size of exterior light and type of shielding
        In addition to the above data, the Zoning Administrator may 
        request any additional information which would enable a reasonable 
        evaluation of the Request for Temporary Exemption.
        The fee for a temporary exemption shall be as required for a 
        variance to the Zoning Ordinance.
        2. Appeal. The Zoning Administrator, within five (5) days from 
        the date of the properly completed Request for Temporary 
        Exemption, shall approve or reject in writing the Request. 
        If rejected, the individual making the Request shall have the 
        right of appeal to the Board of Zoning Appeals.